BEAM iSERIES WebUI - VPN




Summary

Virtual Private Network (VPN) is a method of connecting multiple private networks across the Internet. VPNs can serve to achieve many different goals, but some of its main purposes are:

  • access between remote private networks;
  • data encryption;
  • anonymity when browsing the Internet.

This page is an overview of the different types of VPNs supported by BEAM iSERIES routers.


Open VPN

OpenVPN is an open-source software application that implements virtual private network (VPN) techniques for creating secure point-to-point or site-to-site connections in routed or bridged configurations and remote access facilities. It is often regarded as being the most universal VPN protocol because of its flexibility, support of SSL/TLS security, multiple encryption methods, many networking features and compatibility with most OS platforms.

BEAM iSERIES routers run OpenVPN version 2.4.5.

OpenVPN client

An OpenVPN client is an entity that initiates a connection to an OpenVPN server. To create a new client instance, go to the Services → VPN → OpenVPN section, select Role: Client, enter a custom name and click the 'Add New' button. An OpenVPN client instance with the given name will appear in the "OpenVPN Configuration" list. A maximum of six OpenVPN client instances are allowed to be added.

To begin configuration, click the 'Edit' button next to the client instance. Refer to the figure and table below for information on the OpenVPN client's configuration fields:

This section is overview of OpenVPN Client configuration.

 Field Name
 Value  Description
 Enable  yes | no; Default: no  Turns the OpenVPN instance on or off.
 TUN/TAP  TUN (tunnel) | TAP (bridged); default: TUN (tunnel)  Virtual network device type.
  • TUN - a virtual point-to-point IP link which operates at the network layer (OSI layer 3), used when routing is required.
  • TAP - a virtual Ethernet adapter (switch), operates at the data link layer (OSI layer 2), used when bridging is required.
 Protocol  UDP | TCP; default: UDP Transfer protocol used for the OpenVPN connection.
  • Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) - most commonly used protocol in the Internet Protocol (IP) suite. It ensures the recipient will receive packets in the order they were sent by numbering, analysing response messages, checking for errors and resending them if an issue occurs. It should be used when reliability is crucial (for example, in file transfer).
  • User Datagram Protocol (UDP) - packets are sent to the recipient without error-checking or back-and-forth quality control, meaning that when packets are lost, they are gone forever. This makes it less reliable but faster than TCP; therefore, it should be used when transfer speed is crucial (for example, in video streaming, live calls).
 Port  integer [0..65535]; Default: 1194  TCP/UDP port number used for the connection. Make sure it matches the port number specified on the server side.
NOTE: traffic on the selected port will be automatically allowed in the router's firewall rules.
 LZO
 yes | no; Default: no  Turns LZO data compression on or off.
 Encryption  DES-CBC 64 | RC2-CBC 128 | DES-EDE-CBC 128 | DES-EDE3-CBC 192 | DESX-CBC 192 | BF-CBC 128 | RC2-40-CBC 40 | CAST5-CBC 128 | RC2-40CBC 40 | CAST5-CBC 128 | RC2-64-CBC 64| AES-128-CBC 128 | AES-192-CBC 192 | AES-256-CBC 256 | none; Default: BF-CBC 128  Algorithm used for packet encryption.
 Authentication  TLS | Static Key | Password | TLS/Password; Default: TLS  Authentication mode, used to secure data sessions.
  • Static key is a secret key used for server–client authentication.
  • TLS authentication mode uses X.509 type certificates:
    • Certificate Authority (CA)
    • Client certificate
    • Client key
    All mentioned certificates can be generated using OpenVPN or Open SSL utilities on any type of host machine. One of the most popular utilities used for this purpose is called Easy-RSA.
  • Password is a simple username/password based authentication where the owner of the OpenVPN server provides the login data.
  • TLS/Password uses both TLS and username/password authentication.
 TLS: TLS cipher  all | DHE+RSA | custom; Default: all  Packet encryption algorithm cipher
 TLS: Allowed TLS ciphers  All | DHE+RSA | Custom; default: All  A list of TLS ciphers accepted for this connection.
 Remote host / IP address  ip; default: none  IP address or hostname of an OpenVPN server
 Resolve retry integer | infinite; Default: infinite  In case server hostname resolve fails, this field indicates the amount of time (in seconds) to retry the resolve. Specify infinite to retry indefinitely.
 Keep alive  two integers separated by a space; default: none  Defines two time intervals: the first is used to periodically send ICMP requests to the OpenVPN server, the second one defines a time window, which is used to restart the OpenVPN service if no ICMP response is received during the specified time slice. When this value is specfiied on the OpenVPN server, it overrides the 'keep alive' values set on client instances.
Example: 10 120
Static key: Local tunnel endpoint IP  ip; default: none  IP address of the local OpenVPN network interface.
Static key: Remote tunnel endpoint IP  ip; default: none  IP address of the remote OpenVPN network (server) interface.
Remote network IP address  ip; default: none  LAN IP address of the remote network (server)
Remote network IP netmask  netmask; default: none  LAN IP subnet mask of the remote network (server)
Password: Username  string; default: none  Username used for authentication to the OpenVPN server.
Password: Password  string; default: none  Password used for authentication to the OpenVPN server.
Extra options  string; default: none  Extra OpenVPN options to be used by the OpenVPN instance.
TLS/Password: HMAC authentication algorithm  none | SHA1 | SHA256 | SHA384 | SHA512; Default: SHA1  HMAC authentication algorithm type
TLS/Password: Additional HMAC authentication  yes | no; Default: no  An additional layer of HMAC authentication on top of the TLS control channel to protect against DoS attacks
TLS/Password: HMAC authentication key  .key file; default: none  Uploads an HMAC authentication key file.
TLS/Password: HMAC key direction  0 | 1 | none; default: 1  The value of the key direction parameter should be complementary on either side (client and server) of the connection. If one side uses 0, the other side should use 1, or both sides should omit the parameter altogether.
TLS/Password: Certificate authority .ca file; default: none  Certificate authority (CA) is an entity that issues digital certificates. A digital certificate certifies the ownership of a public key by the named subject of the certificate.
TLS: Client certificate .crt file; default: none  Client certificate is a type of digital certificate that is used by client systems to make authenticated requests to a remote server. Client certificates play a key role in many mutual authentication designs, providing strong assurances of a requester's identity.
TLS: Client key .key file; default: none  Authenticates the client to the server and establishes precisely who they are.
TLS: Private key decryption password (optional)  string; default: none  A password used to decrypt the server's private key. Use only if server's .key file is encrypted with a password.
Static key: Static pre-shared key  .key file; default: none  Uploads a secret key file used for server–client authentication.

Additional notes:

  • Some configuration fields become available only when certain other parameters are selected. The names of the parameters are followed by a prefix that specifies the authentication type under which they become visible. Different color codes are used for different prefixes:
    • Red for Authentication: TLS
    • Purple for Authentication: Static key
    • Blue for Authentication: Password
  • After changing any of the parameters, don't forget to click the Save button located at the bottom-right side of the page.

OpenVPN server

An OpenVPN server is an entity that waits for incoming connections from OpenVPN clients. To create a new server instance, go to the Services → VPN → OpenVPN section, select Role: Server, enter a custom name and click the 'Add New' button. An OpenVPN server instance with the given name will appear in the "OpenVPN Configuration" list. Only one OpenVPN server instance is allowed to be added.

A server needs to have a public IP address in order to be available from the public network (the Internet).

To begin configuration, click the 'Edit' button next to the server instance. Refer to the figure and table below for information on the OpenVPN server's configuration fields:

 Field Name
Value
Description
 Enable  yes | no; Default: no  Turns the OpenVPN instance on or off.
 TUN/TAP  TUN (tunnel) | TAP (bridged); Default: TUN (tunnel)  Virtual network device type.
  • TUN - a virtual point-to-point IP link which operates at the network layer (OSI layer 3), used when routing is required.
  • TAP - a virtual Ethernet adapter (switch), operates at the data link layer (OSI layer 2), used when bridging is required.
 Protocol  UDP | TCP; Default: UDP  Transfer protocol used for the connection.
  • Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) - most commonly used protocol in the Internet Protocol (IP) suite. It ensures the recipient will receive packets in the order they were sent by numbering, analysing response messages, checking for errors and resending them if an issue occurs. It should be used when reliability is crucial (for example, file transfer).
  • User Datagram Protocol (UDP) - packets are sent to the recipient without error-checking or back-and-forth quality control, meaning that when packets are lost, they are gone forever. This makes it less reliable but faster than TCP; therefore, it should be used when transfer speed is crucial (for example, video streaming, live calls).
 Port  integer [0..65535]; Default: 1194  TCP/UDP port number used for the connection. Make sure it matches the port number specified on the server side.
NOTE: traffic on the selected port will be automatically allowed in the router's firewall rules.
 LZO  yes | no; Default: no  Turns LZO data compression on or off.
 Encryption  DES-CBC 64 | RC2-CBC 128 | DES-EDE-CBC 128 | DES-EDE3-CBC 192 | DESX-CBC 192 | BF-CBC 128 | RC2-40-CBC 40 | CAST5-CBC 128 | RC2-40CBC 40 | CAST5-CBC 128 | RC2-64-CBC 64| AES-128-CBC 128 | AES-192-CBC 192 | AES-256-CBC 256 | none; Default: BF-CBC 128  Algorithm used for packet encryption.
 Authentication  TLS* | Static Key | Password | TLS/Password; Default: TLS  Authentication mode, used to secure data sessions.
  • Static key is a secret key used for server–client authentication.
  • TLS authentication mode uses X.509 type certificates:
    • Certificate Authority (CA)
    • Client certificate
    • Client key
    All mentioned certificates can be generated using OpenVPN or Open SSL utilities on any type of host machine. One of the most popular utilities used for this purpose is called Easy-RSA.
  • TLS/Password uses both TLS and username/password authentication.
Static key: Local tunnel endpoint IP
 ip; default: none  IP address of the local OpenVPN network interface.
Static key: Remote tunnel endpoint IP  ip; default: none  IP address of the remote OpenVPN network (client) interface.
Static key: Remote network IP address  ip; default: none  LAN IP address of the remote network (client).
Static key: Remote network IP netmask  netmask; default: none  LAN IP subnet mask of the remote network (client).
TLS/TLS/Password: TLS Cipher
 all | DHE+RSA | custom; Default: all  Packet encryption algorithm cipher
TLS/Password: Allowed TLS ciphers  All | DHE+RSA | Custom; default: All  A list of TLS ciphers accepted for this connection.
TLS/TLS/Password: Client to client
 yes | no; Default: no Allows OpenVPN clients to communicate with each other on the VPN network.
TLS/TLS/Password: Keep alive
 two integers separated by a space; default: none  Defines two time intervals: the first is used to periodically send ICMP requests to the OpenVPN server, the second one defines a time window, which is used to restart the OpenVPN service if no ICMP response is received during the specified time slice. When this value is specifiied on the OpenVPN server, it overrides the 'keep alive' values set on client instances.
Example: 10 120
TLS/TLS/Password: Virtual network IP address   ip; default: none IP address of the OpenVPN network.
TLS/TLS/Password: Virtual network IP netmask  netmask; default: none  Subnet mask of the OpenVPN network.
TLS/TLS/Password: Push option
 OpenVPN options; default: none  Push options are a way to "push" routes and other additional OpenVPN options to connecting clients.
TLS/TLS/Password: Allow duplicate certificates  yes | no; Default: no  When enabled allows multiple clients to connect using the same certificates.
TLS/Password: User name  string; default: none  Username used for authentication to this OpenVPN server.
TLS/Password: Password  string; default: none  Password used for authentication to this OpenVPN server.
Static key: Static pre-shared key  .key file; default: none  Uploads a secret key file used for server–client authentication.
TLS/TLS/Password:Certificate authority  .ca file; default: none  Certificate authority is an entity that issues digital certificates. A digital certificate certifies the ownership of a public key by the named subject of the certificate.
TLS/TLS/Password:Server certificate  .crt file; default: none  A type of digital certificate that is used to identify the OpenVPN server.
TLS/TLS/Password: Server key
 .key file; default: none  Authenticates clients to the server.
TLS/TLS/Password: Diffie Hellman parameters  .pem file; default: none  DH parameters define how OpenSSL performs the Diffie-Hellman (DH) key-exchange.
TLS/TLS/Password: CRL file (optional)  .pem file | .crl file; default: none  A certificate revocation list (CRL) file is a list of certificates that have been revoked by the certificate authority (CA). It indicates which certificates are no longer acccepted by the CA and therefore cannot be authenticated to the server.

Additional notes:

  • Some configuration fields become available only when certain other parameters are selected. The names of the parameters are followed by a prefix that specifies the authentication type under which they become visible. Different color codes are used for different prefixes:
    • Red for Authentication: TLS
    • Purple for Authentication: Static key
    • Blue for Authentication: TLS/Password
  • After changing any of the parameters, don't forget to click the Save button located at the bottom-right side of the page.

TLS Clients

TLS Clients is a way to differentiate clients by their Common Names (CN), which are found in the client certificate file. It can be used to assign specific VPN addresses to corresponding clients and bind them to their LAN addresses, making the server aware of which client has which LAN IP address.

The TLS Clients section can be found in the OpenVPN Server configuration window, provided that the OpenVPN server uses TLS or TLS/Password authentication methods. To create a new TLS client, type in the new client‘s name in the text field found bellow the TLS Clients tab and click the 'Add' button. Refer to the figure and table below for information on the TLS Clients' configuration fields:

 Field Name
 Value  Description
 VPN instance name  string; default: none  Indicates which OpenVPN instance the TLS Client will be associated with. When left empty, this field is filled automatically.
 Endpoint name  string; default: none  A custom name for the client.
 Common name (CN)  string; default: none  Client’s Common Name (CN) found in the client certificate file.
 Virtual local endpoint  ip; default: none  Client’s local address in the virtual network.
 Virtual remote endpoint  ip; default: none  Client’s remote address in the virtual network.
 Private network  ip; default: none  Client’s private network (LAN) IP address.
 Private netmask  ip; default: none  Client’s private network (LAN) IP netmask.

IPsec

To create a new IPsec instance, go to the Services → VPN → IPsec section, enter a custom name and click "Add". An IPsec instance with the given name will appear in the "IPsec Configuration" list.

To begin configuration, click the 'Edit' button located next to the instance.

IPsec configuration

The IPsec configuration section is used to configure the main parameters of an IPsec connection. Refer to the figure and table below for information on the configuration fields located in the general settings section.
 Field Name
 Value  Description
 Enable  yes | no; default: no Turns the IPsec instance on or off
 Enable IPv6  yes | no; default: no Turns the IPv6 address of the left interface on or off
 Authentication type  Pre-shared key | X.509; default: Pre-shared key Authentication type accordingly to your IPsec configuration. IPsec
 IKE version  IKEv1 | IKEv2; default: IKEv1 Internet Key Exchange (IKE) version used for key exchange
  • IKEv1 - more commonly used but contains known issues, for example, dealing with NAT.
  • IKEv2 - updated version with increased and improved capabilities, such as integrated NAT support, supported multihosting, deprecated exchange modes (does not use main or aggressive mode; only 4 messages required to establish a connection)
 Mode  Main | Aggressive; default: Main  Internet Security and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) phase 1 exchange mode.
  • Main - performs three two-way exchanges between the initiator and the receiver (a total of 9 messages).
  • Aggressive - performs fewer exchanges than main mode (a total of 6 messages) by storing most data into the first exchange. In aggressive mode, the information is exchanged before there is a secure channel, making it less secure but faster than main mode
 Type Tunnel | Transport; default: Tunnel  Type of connection.
  • Tunnel - protects internal routing information by encapsulating the entire IP packet (IP header and payload); commonly used in site-to-site VPN connections; supports NAT traversal.
  • Transport - only encapsulates IP payload data; used in client-to-site VPN connections; does not support NAT traversal; usually implemented with other tunneling protocols (for example, L2TP).
 On startup Ignore | Add | Route | Start; default: Start Defines how the instance should act on router startup.
  • Add - loads a connection without starting it.
  • Route - starts the tunnel only if there is traffic.
  • Start - starts the tunnel on router startup.
 My identifier  ip | string; default: none  Defines how the user (IPsec instance) will be identified during authentication.
 Tunnel: Local IP address/Subnet mask  ip/netmask | default: none  Local IP address and subnet mask used to determine which part of the network can be accessed in the VPN network. Netmask range [0..32]. If left empty, IP address will be selected automatically.
 Left firewall  off | on; default: on  Adds neccessary firewall rules to allow traffic of this IPsec instance on this router.
 Force encapsulation  yes | no; default: no  Forces UDP encapsulation for ESP packets even if a "no NAT" situation is detected.
 Dead Peer Detection  yes | no; default: no  A function used during Internet Key Exchange (IKE) to detect a "dead" peer. It used to reduce traffic by minimizing the number of messages when the opposite peer in unavailable and as failover mechanism.
 Dead Peer Detection: Delay (sec)  integer; default: none  The frequency of checking whether a peer is still availaible or not.
 Dead Peer Detection: Timeout (sec)  integer; default: none  Time limit after which the IPsec instance will stop checking the availability of a peer and determine it to be "dead" if no response is received.
 Remote VPN endpoint  host | ip; default: none  IP address or hostname of the remote IPsec instance
 Remote identifier  string | ip; default: none  FQDN or IP address of remote peer. Leave empty for any
 Tunnel: Remote IP address/Subnet mask  ip/netmask; default: none  Remote network IP address and subnet mask used to determine which part of the network can be accessed in the VPN network. Netmask range [0..32]. This value must differ from the device’s LAN IP
 Right firewall  yes | no; default: yes  Adds neccessary firewall rules to allow traffic of from the opposite IPsec instance on this router
 Allow WebUI access  yes | no; default: no  Allows WebUI access for hosts in the VPN network
 Custom options  ipsec options; default: none  Provides the possibility to further customize the connection by adding extra IPsec options.

Additional notes:

  • Some configuration fields become available only when certain other parameters are selected. The names of the parameters are followed by a prefix that specifies the authentication type under which they become visible. Different color codes are used for different prefixes:
    • Red for Type: Tunnel
    • Purple for Type: Transport
    • Blue for Dead Peer Detection: Enabled
  • After changing any of the parameters, don't forget to click the Save button located at the bottom-right side of the page.

Phase settings

IKE (Internet Key Exchange) is a protocol used to set up security associations (SAs) for the IPsec connection. This process is required before the IPsec tunnel can be established. It is done in two phases:

Phase Mode
Phase 1
  • Establishes a secure channel between peers
  • Authenticates peers
  • Negotiates SA policy
  • Shares secret keys
  • Establishes secure tunnel for phase 2
Main mode (figure 1)
  • 6 packets exchanged
  • Identity protected during exchange
Aggressive mode (figure 2)
  • 3 packets exchanged
  • Identity information exchanged before a secure channel is established
Phase 2
  • Sets up matching IPsec SAs
  • Periodically renegotiates IPsec SAs
Quick mode
  • 3 packets exchanged
  • IPsec SA parameters (ESP/AH, SHA/MD5) established
  • SA lifetime set

Figure 1 Figure 2



 Field Name
 Value  Description
 Encryption algorithm DES | 3DES | AES128 | AES192 | AES256; default: 3DES Algorithm used for data encryption.
 Authentication/Hash algorithm MD5 | SHA1 | SHA256 | SHA384 | SHA512; default: SHA1 Algorithm used for exchanging authentication and hash information.
 DH group/PFS group MODP768 | MODP1024 | MODP1536 | MODP2048 | MODP3072 | MODP4096; default: MODP1536 Diffie-Hellman (DH) group used in the key exchange process. Higher group numbers provide more security, but take longer and use more resources to compute the key.
 Lifetime integer; default: 8 hours Defines a time period after which the phase will re-initiate its exchange of information.


Pre-shared keys

A pre-shared key is a secret password used for authentication between IPsec peers before a secure tunnel is established. To create a new key, click the 'Add' button.

The figure below is an example of the Pre-shared keys section and the table below provides information on configuration fields contained in that section:

 Field Name
 Value  Description
Pre-shared key string; default: none A shared password used for authentication between IPsec peers before a secure channel is established.
Secret's ID selector string; default: none Each secret can be preceded by a list of optional ID selectors. A selector is an IP address, a Fully Qualified Domain Name, user@FQDN or %any.
NOTE: IKEv1 only supports IP address ID selector.

GRE Tunnel

Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) is a tunneling protocol used to establish point-to-point connections between remote private networks. GRE tunnels encapsulate data packets in order to route other protocols over IP networks.

GRE: main & tunnel settings

To create a new GRE Tunnel instance, go to the Services → VPN → GRE Tunnel section, enter a custom name and click the 'Add' button. A GRE instance with the given name will appear in the "GRE Configuration" list.

To begin configuration, click the 'Edit' button located next to the instance. Refer to the figure and table below for information on the fields located in the GRE Tunnel instance configuration section.

 Field Name
 Value  Description
Enabled string; default: none Turns the GRE Tunnel instance on or off.
Tunnel source string; default: none Network interface used to establish the GRE Tunnel.
 Remote endpoint IP address  ip; default: none External IP address of another GRE instance used to establish the initial connection between peers.
 Use Ipv6: Remote endpoint IPv6 address  ip; default: none External IPv6 address of GRE instance used to establish the initial connection between peers.
 MTU  integer; default: 1476 Sets the maximum transmission unit (MTU) size. It is the largest size of a protocol data unit (PDU) that can be transmitted in a single network layer transaction.
 TTL  integer [0..255]; default: 255 Sets a custom TTL (Time to Live) value for encapsulated packets. TTL is a field in the IP packet header which is initially set by the sender and decreased by 1 on each hop. When it reaches 0 it is dropped and the last host to receive the packet sends an ICMP "Time Exceeded" message back to the source.
 Outbound key  integer [0..65535]; default: none A key used to identify outgoing packets. A This value should match the "Inbound key" value set on the opposite GRE instance or both key values should be omitted on both sides.
 Inbound key
integer [0..65535]; default: none A key used to identify incoming packets. This value should match the "Outbound key" value set on the opposite GRE instance or both key values should be omitted on both sides.
 Don't fragment  yes | no; default: yes When unchecked, sets the nopmtudisc option for tunnel. Can not be used together with the TTL option.
 Keep alive  yes | no; default: no Turns "keep alive" on or off. The "keep alive" feature sends packets to the remote instance in order to determine the health of the connection. If no response is received, the device will attempt to re-establish the tunnel.
 Keep alive interval  integer [0..255]; default: none Frequency (in seconds) at which "keep alive" packets are sent to the remote instance.
 Local GRE interface IP address  ip; default: none IP address of the local GRE Tunnel network interface.
 Local GRE interface netmask  netmask; default: none Subnet mask of the local GRE Tunnel network interface.

Additional notes:

  • Some configuration fields become available only when certain other parameters are selected. The names of the parameters are followed by a prefix that specifies the authentication type under which they become visible. Different color codes are used for different prefixes:
    • Red for Use IPv6: Enabled
  • After changing any of the parameters, don't forget to click the Save button located at the bottom-right side of the page.

GRE: routing settings

Routing settings are used to configure routes to networks that are behind the device that hosts the opposite GRE instance. To add a new route, simply click the 'Add' button. For information on configuring the route refer to the figure and table below.
 Field Name
 Value  Description
Remote subnet IP address ip; default: none IP address of the network behind the device that hosts the remote GRE instance.
Remote subnet netmask netmask; default: none Subnet mask of the network behind the device that hosts the remote GRE instance.

PPTP

Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) is a type of VPN protocol that uses a TCP control channel and a Generic Routing Encapsulation tunnel to encapsulate PPP packets.

PPTP client

A PPTP client is an entity that initiates a connection to a PPTP server. To create a new client instance, go to the Services → VPN → PPTP section, select Role: Client, enter a custom name and click the 'Add New' button. A PPTP client instance with the given name will appear in the "PPTP Configuration" list.

To begin configuration, click the 'Edit' button located next to the client instance. Refer to the figure and table below for information on the PPTP client's configuration fields:

 Field Name
 Value  Description
Enable yes | no; default: no Turns the PPTP instance on or off.
Local IP ip; default: 192.168.0.1 IP address of this PPTP network interface.
Remote IP range start ip; default: 192.168.0.20 PPTP IP address leases will begin from the address specified in this field.
Remote IP range end ip; default: 192.168.0.30 PPTP IP address leases will end with the address specified in this field.
User name string; default: user Username used for authentication to this PPTP server.
Password string; default: pass Password used for authentication to this PPTP server.
PPTP Client's IP ip; default: none Assigns an IP address to the client that uses the adjacent authentication info. This field is optional and if left empty the client will simply receive an IP address from the IP pool defined above.

L2TP

L2TP client

An L2TP client is an entity that initiates a connection to an L2TP server. To create a new client instance, go to the Services → VPN → L2TP section, select Role: Client, enter a custom name and click the 'Add New' button. An L2TP client instance with the given name will appear in the "L2TP Configuration" list.

To begin configuration, click the 'Edit button located next to the client instance. Refer to the figure and table below for information on the L2TP client's configuration fields:

 Field Name
 Value  Description
Enable yes | no; default: no Turns the L2TP instance on or off.
Server ip | host; default: none IP address or hostname of an L2TP server.
Username string; default: none Username used for authentication to the L2TP server.
Password string; default: none Password used for authentication to the L2TP server.
Keep alive
integer; default: none Frequency (in seconds) at which LCP echo requests are sent to the remote instance in order to determine the health of the connection.
Default route
yes | no; default: no When turned on, this connection will become the router's default route. This means that all traffic directed to the Internet will go through the L2TP server and the server's IP address will be seen as this device's source IP to other hosts on the Internet.
NOTE: this can only be used when WAN Failover is turned off.

L2TP server

An L2TP server is an entity that waits for incoming connections from L2TP clients. To create a new server instance, go to the Services → VPN → L2TP section, select Role: Server, enter a custom name and click the 'Add New' button. An L2TP server instance with the given name will appear in the "L2TP Configuration" list. Only one L2TP server instance is allowed to be added.

A server needs to have a public IP address in order to be available from the public network (the Internet).

To begin configuration, click the 'Edit' button located next to the server instance. Refer to the figure and table below for information on the L2TP server's configuration fields:

 Field Name
 Value  Description
Enable yes | no; default: no Turns the L2TP instance on or off.
Local IP ip; default: 192.168.0.1 IP address of this L2TP network interface
Remote IP range begin ip; default: 192.168.0.20 L2TP IP address leases will begin from the address specified in this field.
Remote IP range end ip; default: 192.168.0.30 L2TP IP address leases will end with the address specified in this field.
User name string; default: user Username used for authentication to this L2TP server.
Password string; default: pass Password used for authentication to this L2TP server.
L2TP Client's IP ip; default: none Assigns an IP address to the client that uses the adjacent authentication info. This field is optional and if left empty the client will simply receive an IP address from the IP pool defined above.

SSTP

Secure Socket Tunneling Protocol (SSTP) is a VPN protocol designed to transport PPP traffic via a secure SSL/TLS channel.

SSTP configuration

To create a new SSTP instance, go to the Services → VPN → SSTP section, enter a custom name and click the 'Add' button. An SSTP instance with the given name will appear in the "SSTP Configuration" list.

To begin configuration, click the 'Edit' button located next to the instance. Refer to the figure and table below for information on the SSTP instance's configuration fields:

 Field Name
 Value  Description
Enable yes | no; default: no Turns the SSTP instance on or off.
Use as default gateway yes | no; default: no When turned on, this connection will become the router's default route. This means that all traffic directed to the Internet will go through the L2TP server and the server's IP address will be seen as this device's source IP to other hosts on the Internet.
NOTE: this can only be used when WAN Failover is turned off.
Server IP address ip | host; default: none IP address or hostname of an SSTP server.
Username string; default: none Username used for authentication to the SSTP server.
Password string; default: none Password used for authentication to the SSTP server.
CA cert .crt file; default: none Uploads a Certificate authority (CA) file.

Stunnel

Stunnel is an open-source a proxy service that adds TLS encryption to clients and servers already existing on a VPN network. TLS encryption provided by Stunnel can be used as an additional layer of encryption for data sent by VPN. This procedure increases the security of the established connection and provides higher chances of passing a Deep packet inspection (DPI) check.

For a more in-depth Stunnel configuration example visit this page: [[OpenVPN_over_Stunnel_{{{name}}}|OpenVPN over Stunnel]].

Stunnel Globals

The Stunnel Globals section is used to manage the Stunnel service as a whole. Refer to the figure and table below for information on the fields contained in the Stunnel Globals section.
 Field Name
 Value  Description
Use alternative config yes | no; default: no Turns the possibility to upload an external Stunnel configuration file on or off.if you turn this on, other Stunnel configurations present in the router will become inactive.
Upload alternative config file; default: none Uploads an Stunnel configuration file.

Stunnel client/server

To create a new Stunnel instance, go to the Services → VPN → Stunnel section, enter a custom name and click the 'Add' button. An Stunnel instance with the given name will appear in the "Stunnel Configuration" list.

To begin configuration, click the 'Edit' button located next to the instance. Refer to the figure and table below for information on the Stunnel instance's configuration fields

 Field Name
 Value  Description
Enable yes | no; default: no Turns the Stunnel instance on or off.
Operating Mode
Server | Client; default: Server Selects the Stunnel instance's role.
  • Server - listens for connecting Stunnel clients.
  • Client - listens for connecting OpenVPN clients and connects to an Stunnel server.
Listen IPip; default: noneMakes the instance "listen" for incoming connections on the specified IP address. When left empty, the value of this field defaults to localhost (127.0.0.1).
Listen Portinteger [0..65535]; default: noneMakes the instance "listen" for incoming connections on the specified TCP port. Make sure you chose a port that is not being used by another service. You will also have to allow traffic on the specified port. You can do this via the Network → Firewall → Traffic Rulles → [[{{{name}}}_Firewall#Open_Ports_On_Router|Open Ports On Router]] section.
Connect IP'sip:port; default: noneIP:Port to listen for VPN connections. When left empty the value of this field is interpreted as localhost. Must contain at least one item. If multiple options are specified, remote address is chosen using a round-robin algorithm.
TLS CipherNone | Secure | Custom; default: NonePacket encryption algorithm cipher.
Allowed TLS Ciphersstring; default: noneA list of TLS ciphers accepted for this connection.
Application ProtocolConnect | SMTP | Not specified; default: Not specifiedThis option enables initial, protocol-specific negotiation of the TLS encryption. The protocol option should not be used with TLS encryption on a separate port.
Protocol AuthenticationConnect: Basic | NTLM; default: Basic
SMTP: Plain | Login; default: Plain
Authentication type for the protocol negotiations.
Protocol Domainstring; default: noneDomain for the protocol negotiations.
Protocol Hosthost:port; default: noneSpecifies the final TLS server to be connected to by the proxy, and not the proxy server directly connected by Stunnel. The proxy server should be specified along with the connect option.
Protocol Usernamestring; Default: noneUsername for authentication to the protocol negotiations.
Protocol Passwordstring; default: nonePassword for authentication to the protocol negotiations.
Certificate File.crt file; default: noneTLS client or server certificate file.
Private Key .key file; default: noneTLS client or server key file.